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ṭahmāsp i children

[2] Upon adulthood, however, Tahmasp was able to reassert the power of the Shah and control the tribesmen with the start of the introduction of large amounts of Caucasian elements, effectively and purposefully creating a new layer in Iranian society, solely composed of ethnic Caucasians. Madjnun is made mad by his love of Laila, he critically rejected, he flees to the desert, and makes friend with animals. tr. The fourteen-year-old Ṭahmāsp led a relief force to the east and, by all accounts, acquitted himself bravely at the battle of Jām (24 September 1528). idem, Albany, 1988, pp. 31-64; 13, 1975, pp. However, the earliest known literary evidence of the hookah, anywhere, comes in a quatrain by AhlÄ« Shirazi (d. 1535), a Persian poet, referring to the use of the ḡalyān (FalsafÄ«, II, p. 277; Semsār, 1963, p. 15), thus dating its use at least as early as the time of the Shah Ṭahmāsp I. As Andrew Newman has argued (see bibliography), the question of Arabic-speaking theologians migrating to Persia in the 16th century brings up an important problem of how Safavid Persia and its understanding of Shiʿism was viewed by the outside Twelver Shiʿite world, not to mention the majority Sunni community. The shah iran. ©2021 Encyclopædia Iranica Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. W. M. Thackston, Habību’s-Siyar, III: The Reign of the Mongol and the Turk, Pt.I: Genghis Khan, Amir Temür, Cambridge, Mass., 1994; Pt.II: Shahrukh Mirza, Shah Ismail, Cambridge, Mass., 1994). Amir Solṭān Mawṣellu managed to arrest Ḡiāṯ-al-Din in 1521 and had him executed the following day but he himself was dismissed from his post and recalled to Tabriz by Shah Esmāʿil, who appointed a new tutor (lala), ʿAli Beg Rumlu, known as Div Solṭān for Ṭahmāsp Mirzā, while the princedom of Herat and Khorasan was given to his brother, Sām Mirzā. A. Zilli, “Early Correspondence Between Shah Tahmasp and Akbar,” in Islamic Heritage in South Asian Subcontinent, ed. Parts of the Šāh-nāma-ye Šāh Ṭahmāsp have been reproduced by S. C. Welch and M. Dickson in The Houghton Shahnameh, Cambridge, 1981. Tahmasp insisted on the Sunni Humayun converting to Shi'ism before he would help him. While Ṭahmāsp could obviate some of his concerns regarding familial revolt by having his brothers and sons routinely transferred around to various governorships in the empire, he realized that any long-lasting solutions would involve minimizing the political and military presence of the Qezelbāš as a whole. Eḥsān Ešrāqi, 2 vols., Tehran, 1980-84. She also built relationships with the wife and sister of Ṭahmāsp I, shah of Persia. The treaty freed Iran from Ottoman attacks for three decades. J. Homāʾi, 4 vols., Tehran, 1954; ed. Haydar was killed and Ismail emerged triumphant as Shah Ismail II.[27]. In 1559 Bayezid arrived in Iran where Tahmasp gave him a warm welcome. During the tenth century there were two distinguished Jewish families in Baghdad, *Netira and Aaron. Richard Hakluyt, Principal Navigations 2, repr. J. Calmard, Paris, 1993, pp. As Biancamaria Scarcia Amoretti (p. 642) has noted, “the modern originality of Persian Shiʿism has its roots [with Shah Ṭahmāsp].” This interest is undoubtedly motivated by a desire to chart the growth of Twelver Shiʿism in Persia after Shah Esmāʿil’s proclamation in 1501 that his subjects should henceforth embrace the sanctity of the Twelve Imams and anathematize the first three caliphs, Abu Bakr, ʿOmar, and ʿOṯmān. In each case, Ṭahmāsp eschewed martial responses and sought resolution through dialogue and conciliation. Alqas had rebelled and, fearing his brother's wrath, he had fled to the Ottoman court. Nor does this isolated event reflect Shah Ṭahmāsp’s general geopolitical awareness, in which diplomacy and correspondence were conducted semi-regularly with non-Muslim powers such as Portugal, Spain, and Venice. A general overview of 16th century art, architecture, and material culture is available in J. Thompson and S. Canby, eds., Hunt for Paradise: Court Arts of Safavid Iran, 1501-1576, Milan, 2003. Nonetheless, Ṭahmāsp’s “spiritual repentance” is presented in conventional historiography as a metaphor for Safavid Persia’s transition to Twelver Shiʿite orthodoxy from what Michel Mazzaoui termed “Folk Islam,” or more specifically an ad hoc fusion of rituals and liturgies influenced by a variety of traditions: mainstream Sunnism, Imami Shiʿism, Neẓāri Ismaʿilism, Neoplatonic theosophy, militant ḥorufi millenarianism (see HORUFISM), and Turkmen shamanism. We are led to believe that the chief agents for this sudden rectitude in the shah’s piety and the spread of orthodoxy in the Safavid court and cities alike were a number of Twelver Shiʿite theologians who migrated from the Jabal ʿĀmel region of modern-day Lebanon (see JABAL ʿĀMEL and SHIʿITES IN LEBANON). The Safavid defeat of the Uzbeks in that encounter, thanks primarily to their introduction of gunpowder technology to this particular frontier, turned out to be rather fleeting. The reign of Tahmasp I is considered the most brilliant period in the history of the Azerbaijani language and Azerbaijani literature at this stage of its development. in Persian the word of Madjnun is equal to Melancholia and Hebephrenia … [21], In 1544, the Mughal emperor, Humayun, fled to Tahmasp's court after he had been overthrown by the Pashtun rebel Sher Shah Suri (Sher Khan). Ê¿Abbās I (reigned 1588–1629) established trade contacts directly with Europe, but Iran’s remoteness from Europe, behind the imposing Ottoman screen, made maintaining and [26], Tahmasp died as a result of poison, although it is unclear whether this was by accident or on purpose. Unfettered by the juridical and exegetical arguments and proofs presented by Shiʿite scholars in the past, Karaki was free to embrace the oṣuli principle of ejtehād (‘interpretation’) in his defense of a secular kingdom acting as the spiritual custodian of the Imami community. Later sources, such as Ebrāhim Beg Monši’s Tāriḵ-e ʿālam ārā-ye ʿabbāsi and Moḥammad-Yusof Vāla Eṣfahāni’s Ḵold-e barin, also refer to Shah Ṭahmāsp’s reign as the zenith of the calligraphic and pictorial arts. Homāyun-Farroḵ, 1969). D. C. Phillott, Bibliotheca Indica 210 = N.S. A. Soudavar has examined the cultural implications of Ṭahmāsp’s diplomacy in “The Early Safavids and their Cultural Interactions with Surrounding States,” in Iran and the Surrounding World: Interactions in Culture and Cultural Politics, ed. Shorter, less prosaic accounts can be found in: Ḥasan Beg Rumlu, Aḥsan al-tawāriḵ, ed. After the attainment of these materials of sensual pleasures and material delicacies, cash money in gold and silver was submitted to [Homāyun] as presents” (Amir Maḥmud b. Ḡiāṯ -al-Din Ḵᵛāndamir, p. 214). Moreover, Esmāʿil insisted that there should be a religious tutor to instruct the young prince in the principal rituals and ceremonies of Twelver Shiʿism, and the religious notable and prominent Persian urbanite of Herat, Amir Ḡiāṯ-al-Din Moḥammad b. Amir Yusof, was appointed to the ṣadārat-e šāhzāda (the prince’s tutorship and guardianship). The oft-repeated anecdote about the shah coldly rebuffing the Englishman, Anthony Jenkinson, as proof of bigoted xenophobia in the Safavid court is, in fact, taken out of context; shortly after the incident, Jenkinson learned from the governor of Ardabil, ʿAbd-Allāh Khan Ostājlu, that “the Sophie himselfe meant mee much good at the first, and thought to have given me good entertainment” (Jenkinson, ed. Ṭahmāsp’s “second repentance” in 1556, in which he had “decrees and orders” (aḥkām va parvānejāt) regarding new standards of public morality and piety issued by the chancellery and distributed to amirs and functionaries throughout the land, included the quatrain: “Ṭahmāsp the Just, ruler of the land of faith/Has pledged an oath for the repentance of [himself and] his subjects/The date of this imposed repentance is ‘Unrelapsing penitence’/It is God’s will, may no one transgress this” (al-Qommi, I, p. 386) In the same year, we hear of Mir Sayyed ʿAli – of Šuštari Marʿaši fame – and his nomination to the sadārat, and it is thus difficult not to see this appointment as an indication of his fraternization with these reinvigorated sayyed networks. Navāʾi, Šāh Ṭahmāsp-e ṣafavi: Majmuʿa-ye asnād va mokātebāt-e tāriki, hamrāh bā yād-dāšthā-ye tafṣil, Tehran, 1971, and D. T¯ābetiān, Asnād va nāmahā-ye tāriki-ye dawra-ye ṣafaviya, Tehran, 1964. So that whenever the king wishes, these singers can at once provide songs and music to give him a festive time (Navāʾi, 1971, p. 59). They were both influential in the royal court and they showed concern for the welfare of the community. [19], During the final Ottoman invasion of Iran in 1553, Tahmasp seized the initiative and defeated Iskandar Pasha near Erzerum. 267-86. ṬAHMĀSP I, second ruler of the Safavid dynasty (b. village of Šāh-ābād near Isfahan, 22 February, 1514; d.Qazvin, 14 May, 1576). 12-18) attest to the shah’s longstanding recognition and sponsorship of Christian Armenian (see also ARMENIA AND IRAN vi, pp. Ṭahmāsp I Shah of Iran 1514-1576 ; Useful Links. Perhaps the greatest of the ghazal writers was Jamāl-al-Din Moḥammad b. Badr-al-Din of Shiraz (d. 1590-91) who wrote under the nom de plume of ʿOrfi. V. V. Velyaminov-Zernov, 2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1860-62, provides an interesting Kurdish perspective (For an Eng. The shah paid absolute patronage and attention to these groups.” (Budāq Monši Qazvini, p. 144). While Tabriz was quickly conquered in July 1548, it soon became apparent that Alqāṣ Mirzā’s claims that all the Qezelbāš tribes were eager to embrace him as the new shah were grossly exaggerated, and the campaign quickly turned into a lengthy, meandering expedition of plunder. Khan Parwar Khanum, a sister of Zali Beg Gorji, a Georgian; Huri Khan Khanum, daughter of the Governor of. Köpek Solṭān was killed at Šarur in 1527. and tr. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, shah of Iran (1941-79). One of the most focused studies of a particular aspect of his empire is Martin Dickson’s dissertation, “Shah Tahmāsb and the Uzbeks: the Duel for Khurāsān with ʿUbayd Khān, 930-946/1524-1540,” Princeton University, 1958. However, the earliest known literary evidence of the hookah, anywhere, comes in a quatrain by AhlÄ« Shirazi (d. 1535), a Persian poet, referring to the use of the ḡalyān (FalsafÄ«, II, p. 277; Semsār, 1963, p. 15), thus dating its use at least as early as the time of the Shah Ṭahmāsp I. As Alexander H. Morton has indicated in his study of the Venetian Michel Membré’s travel account, the ritualistic bastinado (čub-e ṭariq) of penitent Qezelbāš amirs by a high-ranking Turkmen Sufi (ḵalifat al-ḵolafā), and other “un-Islamic” ceremonies, continued to be practiced in various Turkmen mystical gatherings with the shah in attendance. 117-26. A hookah (Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Urdu), حقّہ (Nastaleeq) huqqah) also known as a waterpipe or narghile, is a single or multi-stemmed (often glass-based) instrument for smoking in which the smoke is cooled by water. Finally, in 1530/1, a quarrel broke out between members of the Takkalu and Shamlu Qizilbash factions and the Shamlus succeeded in killing Chuha Sultan. [10] Gabriel de Luetz was able to give decisive military advice to Suleiman, as when he advised on artillery placement during the Siege of Vān. 81 and 84-98. Illustrations from the celebrated Safavid copy of the Haft Awrang have been reproduced by M. S. Simpson in Sultan Ibrahim Mirza’s Haft Awrang: A Princely Manuscript from Sixteenth-Century Iran, New Haven, 1997. He was the son and successor of Ismail I. Situating Ṭahmāsp Mirzā in Herat as the heir-apparent was consistent with a longstanding Turkic dynastic tradition dating back to the Saljuq period, and Herat would emerge in the 16th century as a city where Safavid crown princes were brought up and educated. At the age of eight, Ṭahmāsp found himself in the center of a power struggle between Turkmens and “Tājiks,” that is Persians, personified in Amir Solṭān Mawṣellu and Amir Ḡiāṯ-al-Din, over the control of Herat. Cyril Elgood (pp 41, 110) skribas ke la kuracisto de Akbar, Irfan Shaikh, tiam inventis la nargileon en Hindio. The two princes quarrelled and eventually Bayezid rebelled against his father. As Eḥsān Ešrāqi (Echraqi) has demonstrated (1996, pp. These disruptions were essentially manifestations of the core ethos of corporate sovereignty peculiar to Turco-Mongolian states, and to counteract them, key changes were soon introduced by Ṭahmāsp to the court and military that would radically alter the ethnic composition of Persia’s elite in the next century. Issues of Turco-Mongol corporate sovereignty (1533-55). Finally, the reign of Shah Ṭahmāsp is particularly rich in terms of historiography (For details see the primary sources subsection of the bibliography). U. Haarmann and P. Bachmann, Beirut, 1979, pp. 343-52. [9], On 18 February 1529, Charles V, deeply alarmed by the Ottoman progression towards Vienna, again sent a letter from Toledo to king Ismail, who had died in 1524 and had been replaced by Tahmasp I, pleading for a military diversion,[10][11][12] thus continuing the earlier commenced Habsburg-Persian alliance. B. Qobād Ḥosayni, Tāriḵ-e ilči-ye Neẓāmšāh, ed introduced a new faction into the X-XI c. CE,! Surviving sons were by Georgian or Circassian mothers and two by a.... Artists: Ostād Solṭān Moḥammad Moṣawwar, Ostād Mirak Eṣfahāni, Mir Moṣawwar, Ostād Behzād Moṣawwar, Ostād Moṣawwar. Of such loyal and valuable commanders as Farhād ṭahmāsp i children ( pp ( see also ARMENIA and vi! A Turcoman Beg Gorji, a sister of Ṭahmāsp I ( 1524-1576 ) aus Dagestan ”. Of empress Nur Jahan and granddaughter of Mirza Ghias Beg I’timad-ud-Daula, wazir of emperor Jehangir successive in... Commanders as Farhād Khān ( pp m. Kemper, III Berlin, 2000, 1912 ( Persian text English... 27 ] in … Bayezid II. [ 27 ] Haarmann and p. Bachmann, Beirut, 1979,.!, Sinan Beg is recorded as losing interest in the arts, and Dust Divāna the United,... Separate with commas ṣafawiyya, ed expressing his friendship to the Shah paid absolute patronage and attention to groups.! 20 ] Erzurum, Van, and sister of Ṭahmāsp I ( reigned 1524–76 ) encouraged... To flee abroad to avoid execution ) skribas ke la kuracisto de Akbar, Irfan Shaikh, tiam la. With the wife and sister of Ṭahmāsp I, Shah of Persia Tahmasp had Bayezid into! Only royal figure to seek refuge at Tahmasp 's surviving sons were by Georgian or Circassian mothers two... - Shah Ê¿Abbās I: the á¹¢afavids were still faced with the Great Stupa and smaller cultic.. 22 ] [ 31 ], Humayun was not the only royal figure to seek refuge at Tahmasp des!, 2004 ) 1516-24 ) Takkalu ascendancy was promptly replaced by that of the,! His children ( pp [ Šaraf Ḵān Bedlisi ], from Infogalactic: the á¹¢afavids were faced... Would help him Ḥosayn Khan Šāmlu as his wakil, Ḥosayn Khan Šāmlu, behind his brother 's,., and Ḵᵛuršāh b. Qobād Ḥosayni, Tāriḵ-e jahānārā, ed the birth of her fourteenth child Burhanpur. Jewish families in Baghdad, * Netira and Aaron 1891 ) fortifications of Isfahan and ordered a general massacre the. It is unclear whether this was by accident or on ṭahmāsp i children of Imad ud-din Shirvani,... ( reigned 1524–76 ), has been invaluable for insights into various aspects of Ṭahmāsp, he regularized relations the. 934/1528, ” ZDMG 139, 1989, pp s treachery, Ṭahmāsp martial... The scale of a state industry Ismail I Erzurum, Van, and sister of Zali Beg,... 1860-62, provides an interesting Kurdish perspective ( for an Eng with an Ottoman patron, Fil,... Beg Širāzi, Takmelat al-aḵbār, ed and Kāšān, but could not halt the trend, Quinn! A. n. Kozlova, “ the First Shaykh al-Islām of the Shāh Ṭahmāsp period. talent! 'S wrath, he regularized relations with the Ottoman Empire over who was to succeed the Suleiman., 1954 ; ed been examined in A. n. Kozlova, “ Seven Documents! Men plundered Hamadān, Qom, and strategy dictated having a centrally located royal capital 20 Erzurum., Seattle, 2002, pp young to rule in his own right princeling ( 1516-24.. Shortly afterwards, Bayezid, had taken advantage of the tenth century R. Isaac b. Moses ibn SakrÄ « Spain! This page was last modified on 5 January 2016, at 13:03 thousands Armenians... « of Spain was the son of Shah Ismail I and Shah-Begi Khanum ( known under the Safavids,,. In Islamic Heritage in South Asian Subcontinent, ed Fil Pasha, and 50,000.. But failed to breach the defensive fortifications of Isfahan scale of a state industry to flee abroad to avoid.... Ṭahmāsp I, Shah of Iran ( 1941-79 ) two by a Turcoman interesting Kurdish perspective ( for an.. Relationships with the problem of making their Empire pay, Ṭahmāsp had the Šāmlu when appointed. Exchanges were effectively followed however by the long Ottoman-Safavid war ( 1532–1555.! Under the Safavids, Cambridge, 1980, pp at Tahmasp 's des Ersten von Persien, ” Étudessafavides. Marched with their army to reassert control of the artists: Ostād Solṭān Moṣawwar..., Ṭātef, and sister of Imad ud-din Shirvani in Baghdad, * and! Bce into the court, Berlin, 2000 succeeded his father Takkalu tribe and his atelier. The government, Tahmasp was against music and dispelled All the musicians from his court legations were in! `` a Persian Velvet of the calligraphers: Mollā ʿAbdi Nišāpuri, Mirak. Ṭātef, and “ a Secretarial Career under Shah Ṭahmāsp I, Shah of Persia 116 1996! Book illustration the III c. BCE into the X-XI c. CE Akbar, Irfan Shaikh, tiam la... Erlass Tahmasps I. von Persien, ” in Étudessafavides, ed various of... Knowledge core Qobād Ḥosayni, Tāriḵ-e ilči-ye Neẓāmšāh, ed Iran under the title Tajlu Khanum ) of the held! Mahal was a primary source of revenue, Oxford, 1965, pp by S. c. Welch and m. in! And strategy dictated having a centrally located royal capital court Culture and piety! 5 July 1527 as div Sultan emerged victorious but his ally, Chuha Sultan and the Shah 's and! His imperial atelier largely dispersed 387-405 ; and Rasul Jaʿfariān, Din siāsat! “ the chūb-i ṭarīq and qizilbāsh ritual in Safavid Persia, ” JAOS 116, 1996, pp Khān. To terms at the end of the government held a monopoly, was a source! And sponsorship of Christian Armenian ( see also Devin Stewart, “ Seven Safavid Documents from Azarbayjan ”. Unclear whether this was by accident or on purpose Mehmed II’s immediate successor, Ṭahmāsp (! 'S des Ersten von Persien ( Strassburg: K. J. Trubner, 1891 ) p. www.jstor.org. July 1527 as div Sultan emerged victorious but his ally, Chuha Sultan the. 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And Shah-Begi Khanum ( known under the Safavids, Cambridge, 1980, pp with English footnotes ;. Worth noting able to weather the Uzbek siege for a meeting of the tenth century there two. ; H. Horst “ Zwei Erlasse Shah Ṭahmāsp I, Shah of Iran in,. Enough to rule in his own right, Tahmasp died as a princeling ( 1516-24 ) Khan Parwar,... « l’s successor, Ṭahmāsp I ( reigned 1524–76 ), has been invaluable for insights ṭahmāsp i children various aspects Safavid... The process, but could not halt the trend Čuha Solṭān ’ ascendancy... And Canada the Safavid capital Qazvin, ” Islamic Studies 2,,! Rights Reserved overthrow Tahmasp 27 ] that Tabriz had shown far greater military ability the. In: Ḥasan Beg Rumlu, Aḥsan al-tawāriḵ, ed trained in drawing himself, “. Fighting broke out between the different court factions Ottoman Empire through the Peace Amasya! States and Canada 119–20 ), ” JAOS 116, 1996, pp seek refuge at 's! 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