supremacy noun [U] (HIGHEST) the leading or controlling position: The company has begun to challenge the supremacy of the current leading manufacturers in the textiles industry. The federal government is one of delegated powers, and from that it necessarily follows that any constitutional exercise of its delegated powers is governmental. If a power is delegated to Congress in the Constitution, the Tenth Amendment expressly disclaims any reservation of that power to the States; if a power is an attribute of state sovereignty reserved by the Tenth Amendment, it is necessarily a power the Constitution has not conferred on Congress.”78, Powers delegated to the Nation, therefore, are subject to limitations that reserve power to the states. But the authority granted to the federal government in the Supremacy Clause does not mean Congress can necessarily impose its will on states. What does supremacy clause mean? In dissent, however, Justice Rehnquist propounded a doctrine that was to obtain majority approval in League of Cities,44 in which he wrote for the Court: “[T]here are attributes of sovereignty attaching to every state government which may not be impaired by Congress, not because Congress may lack an affirmative grant of legislative authority to reach the matter, but because the Constitution prohibits it from exercising the authority in that manner.”45 The standard, apparently, in judging between permissible and impermissible federal regulation, is whether there is federal interference with “functions essential to separate and independent existence.”46 In the context of this case, state decisions with respect to the pay of their employees and the hours to be worked were essential aspects of their “freedom to structure integral operations in areas of traditional governmental functions.”47 The line of cases exemplified by United States v. California was distinguished and preserved on the basis that the state activities there regulated were so unlike the traditional activities of a state that Congress could reach them;48 Case v. Bowles was held distinguishable on the basis that Congress had acted pursuant to its war powers and to have rejected the power would have impaired national defense;49 Fry was distinguished on the bases that it upheld emergency legislation tailored to combat a serious national emergency, the means were limited in time and effect, the freeze did not displace state discretion in structuring operations or force a restructuring, and the federal action “operated to reduce the pressure upon state budgets rather than increase them.”50 Wirtz was overruled; it permitted Congress to intrude into the conduct of integral and traditional state governmental functions and could not therefore stand.51, League of Cities did not prove to be much of a restriction upon congressional power in subsequent decisions. Federal laws of general applicability, therefore, are surely subject to examination under the New York test rather than under the Garcia structural standard. This limitation is not found in the text of the Tenth Amendment, which is, the Court stated, “but a truism,”79 but is a direct constraint on Article I powers when an incident of state sovereignty is invaded.80 The “take title” provision was such an invasion. On the same day, a different majority held that California could not penalize a milk dealer for selling milk to the War Department at less than the minimum price fixed by state law where the sales and deliveries were made in a territory which had been ceded to the Federal Government by the state and were subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the former.101 On the other hand, by virtue of its conflict with standards set forth in the Armed Services Procurement Act, 41 U.S.C. The connection of the government with the bank, is likened to that with contractors.”109 Marshall accepted this analogy but not to the advantage of the appellants. "However the court may interpret the provisions of the Constitution, it is still the Constitution which is the law, not the decisions of the Court," Meese said, quoting constitutional historian Charles Warren. However, federal statutes and treaties are supreme only if they do not contravene the Constitution. M… The Act in general limits disclosure and resale without a driver’s consent of personal information contained in the records of state motor vehicle departments, and requires disclosure of that information for specified government record-keeping purposes. Constitutional doctrine that whenever conflict occurs between the constitutionally authorized actions of the national government and those of a state or local government, the actions of the federal government prevail. 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